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NGS-Different-Sanger-Sequencing

How is NGS Different from Sanger Sequencing?

Introduction Sequencing DNA involves biochemical processes to ascertain the order (sequence) of nucleotides of DNA strands. Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger methods were developed over 40 years ago, but the Sanger method soon dominated the DNA sequencing arena. With this method, DNA is repeatedly copied resulting in DNA fragments of varying lengths. The ends of each fragment are labeled with a chain terminator, and this allows the determination of the DNA sequence.…

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race-and-predisposition

Race and Predisposition to Disease

Introduction Interdisciplinary efforts over several decades have provided intriguing information regarding the factors that contribute to racial differences in health status and outcomes. Even with this information on hand, challenges remain regarding improved characterization of these various biological and environmental factors. Advances in genomic studies have provided some of the valuable tools and data needed to move forward in the direction of defining the biologic factors underlying racial differences in…

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Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-sequencing-macrogen

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq)

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assays have the ability to capture an image of specific protein to DNA interactions that are occurring in a system and process these interactions using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), ChIP-chip, or next generation sequencing (NGS). When paired with next generation sequencing specifically, ChIP-seq is a powerful way to identify genome-wide DNA binding sites for transcription factors and other proteins. When performing ChIP-seq, chromatin is separated from cells…

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HLA-Pharmacogenetics-Macrogen-Labs

HLA and Pharmacogenetics

Introduction For years, the unpredictability of drug reactions has served as an underlying uncertainty in the safety of medications. This is because many of these reactions are specific to certain individuals and populations and under specific circumstances with an unknown basis. Adverse drug reactions can be very medically devastating, leading to severe consequences including death. The capacity to find a means to predict the risk of adverse reactions for patients…

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Tablet being used for personalized medicine

DNA Sequencing: The Backbone of Personalized Medicine

Concept of Personalized Medical Care As a society, we have been accustomed to the concept of a “one-size-fits-all” approach to healthcare. However, this has not been ideal for many people and limits the success of medical management. There are instances where there is some level of tailoring to the individual, but not to the extent needed to address the numerous nuisances that can affect the optimal results of a person’s…

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NGS DNA Sequencing

Next-Generation Sequencing Revolutionizes Drug Discovery and Development

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Overview Next-generation sequencing is a massive parallel sequencing technology. Genomic DNA is extracted, fragmented, and linked to adapters and primers for the amplification reaction (PCR) to generate a library. DNA fragments in the library are simultaneously sequenced. This provides a massive set of sequence data in a matter of days. The data obtained is processed with bioinformatics software and interpreted. In addition to rapidly obtaining sequence data…

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3d render of dna structure for transposon sequencing

How Transposons are Changing the Sequencing Industry

Introduction Mobile DNA segments that can change position, transpose, are transposons (or transposable elements). These “jumping genes” discovered by Barbara McClintock 70 years ago exist in species of all kingdoms, from bacteria to humans. Transposons make up large portions of a species’ genome and have key biological functions. In humans, transposons make up nearly 50% of the genome; however, only a very small portion of the transposons are still actually…

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Ebola Outbreak Leaves Behind Genome Sequences

On August 28, 2014, researchers from Harvard University and the Broad Institute released a report that sequences and analyzes the genomes from the recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in Sierra Leone.   Stephen Gire and Pardis Sabeti of Harvard and the Broad Institute led the collaborative effort of more than 50 co-authors. The research is based on examples of the virus from 78 people who were diagnosed with Ebola…

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Human Whole Genome Sequencing

Human Whole Genome Sequencing Whole genome sequencing or full genome sequencing is a field of study that has proven to be quite critical to the average person. The number of discoveries found through sequencing is rapidly growing by the day.   Of the many applications for genome sequencing, one of the largest is for research. This might apply to finding links between certain genes and the susceptibility to having certain…

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