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HLA-Pharmacogenetics-Macrogen-Labs

HLA and Pharmacogenetics

Introduction For years, the unpredictability of drug reactions has served as an underlying uncertainty in the safety of medications. This is because many of these reactions are specific to certain individuals and populations and under specific circumstances with an unknown basis. Adverse drug reactions can be very medically devastating, leading to severe consequences including death. The capacity to find a means to predict the risk of adverse reactions for patients…

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Cloud-based Technology Concept

The Promise and Security Risks of using Cloud-Based Informatics Solutions for Human Genomic Data Analysis

Introduction The ability for medical and research scientists around the globe to share data has enhanced the progress of medical discovery and healthcare delivery. Instant access to information by researchers and healthcare providers allows more time spent acting on and processing data. However, large bodies of data (a.k.a big data) generated through new technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) need special data-storage considerations. Storage of a vast body of data…

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3d rendering molecular structure. Molecules or network from glass and crystal. Abstract molecules in bright lit environment. Structural background. Molecular grid. Depth of field.

Molecular Basis of Immune Diversity and Emerging Clinical Applications

Introduction A wide variety of immune mechanisms have evolved in living organisms that serve to protect them from many types of disease-causing agents. These mechanisms differ in various ways including in how the immunity develops and how the agents or pathogens are processed and destroyed by the organism’s immune cells. These different mechanisms of defense constitute the immune diversity of species and are important for survival. A better understanding of…

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The word "AUTISM?" spelled out in child's blocks. "Is it autism?" is a question many parents have about their kids.

Advances in Characterizing the Genetic Basis of Autism

Introduction The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continues to be challenging and depends on neurological and psychological analyses. A number of risk factors and genetic associations with the disorder have been identified. However, work is ongoing to better characterize the genetic basis of ASD, to determine how to identify the risk for ASD, and to design the best therapies for those diagnosed with ASD. Given the high heritability, the…

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How NGS is Enabling the Ability to Counter Biological Aging

Introduction Aging has been accepted as a normal biological process that is inevitable. This deterioration of structure and function and loss of homeostasis over time is considered to some to be a collection of pathological processes or disorders that can be slowed or stopped. The search for the fountain of youth is ageless. Studies in the search for this “fountain” have begun to focus on the relationship between gene expression…

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3d rendered, medically accurate 3d illustration of a tumor

Circulating Tumor DNA Methodologies

Introduction The analysis of cell-free DNA or liquid biopsy is emerging as a noninvasive clinical tool to aid in achieving accurate diagnoses. It is also a valuable research tool to determine biomarkers of disease, identify drug targets, and ascertain the factors responsible for drug resistance. Circulating tumor DNA refers to cell-free DNA that are fragments of DNA released from tumor cells and appearing in the blood circulation. Major challenges to…

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Test tube with blood sample for DNA test

Home DNA vs. Clinical DNA: What’s the Difference?

Introduction Various types of home diagnostic testing or screening have placed more power and control of individual health information and care in the hands of consumers. We are well familiar with and may have used (or know someone who has) blood pressure kits, glucose measurement kits, and home pregnancy tests. Due to the next-generation sequencing (NGS) revolution, it is now possible to achieve home DNA sequencing for medical applications. However,…

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Using Next-Generation Sequencing in Infectious Disease Diagnosis

Introduction The need for accurate and rapid identification of infectious agents in individual illness and global health threats cannot be overstated. Limitations in the timeliness and accuracy of pathogen identification have devastating public health consequences. The current methods that are routinely used often provide data in a time span that does not allow the most effective, specific, and direct treatment options. This leads to antibiotic treatments that are broad, based…

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Next-Generation Sequencing: Popular Applications in Clinical Medicine

Introduction and Brief overview of NGS An important technological advance in the practice of diagnostic and clinical medicine is next-generation sequencing (NGS). This technology is rapidly transforming clinical practice by providing a means to obtain both diagnostic and prognostic data with the same data. This transformation is made possible because of the cost-effective and rapid nature of NGS.   Next-generation sequencing is a massive parallel sequencing method allowing the sequencing…

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Are You DNA Smart? Take the Quiz!

Introduction and Key Definitions Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the blueprint that contains the instructions for cells (and thus an organism) to function. This includes for reproduction, growth, maintenance, and all other functions that sustain life. This role of DNA is mediated through what is called the central dogma. In the basic sense, DNA codes for RNA that subsequently codes for proteins. An exception to this is the case of some…

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